Hermaphrodite sex images
Furthermore, our study of dmd-1 in two flatworm species provides evidence for the conservation of sex regulatory function between lophotrochozoans and other metazoans. 22) of the predicted DM domain protein sequences did not detect significant sequence similarities to other DM domain proteins outside the DM domain, consistent with previous phylogenetic analysis of DM domain genes.We identified four genes containing conserved DM domains in the genome of S. A maximum likelihood analysis using only the DM domains from each gene was used to generate a phylogenetic tree.Although the tree had poor resolution, and low bootstrap support across most of the topology, it provided evidence of moderate-to-strong relationships between Smed-dmd-1 and homologues in S. mediterranea do not have obvious close homologues in other species based on phylogenetic reconstructions using DM domain or BLAST comparisons using the full protein sequence.mansoni (Sm_dmd-1 and Sm_dmd-2, Gen Bank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers XM002575184.1 and XM002574366.1) and the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (dmrt-1a and dmrt-1b, Gen Bank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers GAA52246.1 and GAA34150.2) (Supplementary Fig. We used whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) to investigate the expression of the four DM domain genes in the planarian, S. Of the four genes, only Smed-dmd-1 m RNA transcripts were detected in the reproductive system.
Consistent with this idea, the dmd-1-positive cells in the testes of mature sexual planarians did not express germ cell markers, including nanos, germinal histone H4 (ref.dmd-1 messenger RNA (m RNA) is expressed in somatic cells associated with the testes and in male, but not female, accessory reproductive organs.Abrogation of dmd-1 function results in defects in germline specification and the initial differentiation of the reproductive system.In addition, dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs.These results demonstrate that dmd-1 is an essential component of pathways responsible for inductive specification of the germline and development of a sex-specific somatic gonadal niche in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.